copper 1 phosphate formula
These fakes are detected by gemologists using a number of tests, relying primarily on non-destructive, close examination of surface structure under magnification; a featureless, pale blue background peppered by flecks or spots of whitish material is the typical surface appearance of natural turquoise, while manufactured imitations will appear radically different in both colour (usually a uniform dark blue) and texture (usually granular or sugary). Glass and plastic will have a much greater translucency, with bubbles or flow lines often visible just below the surface.

The majority of American material is now treated in this manner although it is a costly process requiring many months to complete. [citation needed] Meanwhile, it has been discovered that the turquoise certainly can change colour, but that this is not necessarily a sign of impending danger. A significant portion of the Nevada material is also noted for its often attractive brown or black limonite veining, producing what is called "spiderweb matrix". The turquoise is also a stone in the Jewish High Priest's breastplate, described in Exodus chapter 28.

It is restricted to a mine-riddled region in Nishapur, the 2,012 m (6,601 ft) mountain peak of Ali-mersai near Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan Province, Iran. [citation needed]. In the Southwestern United States turquoise is almost invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium-feldspar-bearing porphyritic intrusives. Part 1: The, "Phosphates – PubChem Public Chemical Database", "Scientists warn of lack of vital phosphorus as biofuels raise demand", Mass and Composition of the Continental Crust, National Council for Science and the Environment, "Updated Hinda Resource Announcement: Now world's largest phosphate deposit (04/12/2012)", "Limited amount of total phosphorus actually feeds algae, study finds",, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 20:35. [16] As clay minerals promote biomineralization, the presence of bacteria and clay minerals resulted in calcium hydroxyapatite and calcite precipitates. This region was known as the Country of Turquoise by the native Monitu. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. While rarely encountered today, odontolite was once mined in large quantities—specifically for its use as a substitute for turquoise—in southern France. Smaller deposits are located in Montana, Tennessee, Georgia, and South Carolina. Bonded and reconstituted material is worth considerably less. It has the appearance of yellowish-grey very brittle mass of crystalline structure. Iran has been an important source of turquoise for at least 2,000 years. The term also refers to the trivalent functional group OP(O-)3 in such esters. In Iranian architecture, the blue turquoise was used to cover the domes of palaces because its intense blue colour was also a symbol of heaven on earth. These workings are the oldest known, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula. Such material is sometimes described as "spiderweb matrix"; it is most valued in the Southwest United States and Far East, but is not highly appreciated in the Near East where unblemished and vein-free material is ideal (regardless of how complementary the veining may be). In spite of increased costs, small scale mining operations continue at a number of turquoise properties in Nevada, including the Godber, Orvil Jack and Carico Lake mines in Lander County, the Pilot Mountain Mine in Mineral County, and several properties in the Royston and Candelaria areas of Esmerelda County. It was initially named by Iranians "pērōzah" meaning "victory", and later the Arabs called it "fayrūzah", which is pronounced in Modern Persian as "fīrūzeh". The change can be caused by the light, or by a chemical reaction brought about by cosmetics, dust or the acidity of the skin. This is generally true of freshwater environments, whereas nitrogen is more often the limiting nutrient in marine (seawater) environments. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is typically found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in typically highly altered volcanic rocks, often with associated limonite and other iron oxides. ENDMEMO. In effect, H3PO4, H2(PO4)− and H(PO4)2− behave as separate weak acids because the successive pKa differ by more than 4.

It was apparently unknown in India until the Mughal period, and unknown in Japan until the 18th century. Very often the material sold as "reconstituted turquoise" is artificial, with little or no natural stone, made entirely from resins and dyes. Most Chinese material is exported, but a few carvings worked in a manner similar to jade exist. Any such treatments which have been performed should be disclosed to the buyer on sale of the material. Crystals, even at the microscopic scale, are exceedingly rare.

In mineralogy and geology, phosphate refers to a rock or ore containing phosphate ions. Addition of high levels of phosphate to environments and to micro-environments in which it is typically rare can have significant ecological consequences. The Kingman Mine as of 2015 still operates alongside a copper mine outside of the city. Opaque, blue-to-green mineral: hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium, Some natural blue to blue-green materials, such as this, Gemmological classifications by E. Ya. A reading of 1.61–1.65 (birefringence 0.040, biaxial positive) has been taken from rare single crystals. Free orthophosphate anions can be released by the hydrolysis of the phosphoanhydride bonds in ATP or ADP. 4H 2 O.It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gemstone and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. [3][6] With lower hardness comes lower specific gravity (2.60–2.90)[3] and greater porosity; these properties are dependent on grain size. It may also be regarded as the cupric salt of phosphoric acid. A common belief shared by many of these civilizations held that turquoise possessed certain prophylactic qualities; it was thought to change colour with the wearer's health and protect him or her from untoward forces. Turquoise may also be peppered with flecks of pyrite or interspersed with dark, spidery limonite veining. Turquoise prehistoric artifacts (beads) are known since the fifth millennium BCE from sites in the Eastern Rhodopes in Bulgaria – the source for the raw material is possibly related to the nearby Spahievo lead–zinc ore field. Copper(II) phosphate (not to be confused with copper(I) phosphate) is an inorganic compound consisting of copper cations and the phosphate anions; with the chemical formula Cu3(PO4)2. Gem-quality material, in the form of compact nodules, is found in the fractured, silicified limestone of Yunxian and Zhushan, Hubei province. Phosphorite mines are primarily found in: In 2007, at the current rate of consumption, the supply of phosphorus was estimated to run out in 345 years. These treatments include innocuous waxing and more controversial procedures, such as dyeing and impregnation (see Treatments). [2] The addition and removal of phosphate groups (phosphorylation and dephosphorylation) are key steps in cell metabolism. This treatment is more or less acceptable by tradition, especially because treated turquoise is usually of a higher grade to begin with. In organic chemistry, phosphate or orthophosphate is an organophosphate, an ester of orthophosphoric acid of the form PO4RR′R″ where one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by organic groups. Uniformity of colour is desired, and in finished pieces the quality of workmanship is also a factor; this includes the quality of the polish and the symmetry of the stone. Other mines include the Blue Bird mine, Castle Dome, and Ithaca Peak, but they are mostly inactive due to the high cost of operations and federal regulations. Conversely, stabilization and bonding are rejected by some as too radical an alteration. [citation needed] In the rainy winter months, miners face a risk from flash flooding; even in the dry season, death from the collapse of the haphazardly exploited sandstone mine walls may occur. The Ancient Egyptian use of turquoise stretches back as far as the First Dynasty and possibly earlier; however, probably the most well-known pieces incorporating the gem are those recovered from Tutankhamun's tomb, most notably the Pharaoh's iconic burial mask which was liberally inlaid with the stone. These stones are termed "backed," and it is standard practice that all thinly cut turquoise in the Southwestern United States is backed.


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