is hellenism a closed religion
Such an education initiated youths into the Greek way of life, especially athletics, its most characteristic feature. God's truth, though it may seem foolish is true wisdom. The Vikings’ next step out into the Atlantic – the discovery and settlement of Iceland – is one of the best documented events of the Viking Age. HEARTH OF HELLENISM: HOW TO PRAY TO THE GODS . 2018.

Usually the gymnasium included religious shrines to the gods to whom the institution was devoted. Hence Paul could preach antinomianism to an audience that looked upon the Torah as a law which could be repealed rather than as a way of life, and when the injunction Elohim lo tekalel (Ex.

Research on Hellenism has been helped by archaeological discoveries, new inscriptions, and the constitution of a new branch of research, papyrology, since the beginning of the 20th century. 90b), Meir's reported disputations with the Cynic Oenomaus of Gadara (Gen. R. 68:20) – a city a little east of the Jordan which also produced three other famous ancient Greek writers, Menippus the satirist, Meleager the poet, and Philodemus the Epicurean philosopher and poet – as well as Judah ha-Nasi's discussions with "Antoninus" ; Av. Euclid, Apollonius of Perge, and Archimedes represent the culmination of Greek research in geometry and mechanics. The slaves, the native peasants, and the Greek proletariat neither contributed much to, nor enjoyed the advantages of, this civilization. Human wisdom, though appearing wise is often foolishness. 1:17-31) (Note that 1 Corinthians 1 is an indictment of a Hellenistic world view.

Indeed, the life of Moses used by Artapanus, Philo, and Josephus contained details borrowed from the legendary life of Pythagoras. Alexander Yannai employed Greek mercenaries in his army (ibid., 13:387), and from his time onward coins are inscribed with Greek as well as with Hebrew. Zeus, Athena, and other ancient Greek gods and deities, Athens. Hellenists also adhere to the humanistic values and ethics of the ancients Greeks.

The 72 elders to whom the translation of the Torah was entrusted are depicted as having had a good Greek education, and engage with the king in a symposium on ethics and politics reminiscent of those described by Plato, Xenophon, Athenaeus, Plutarch, and Macrobius. It is much more difficult to speak of Hellenism as a political and institutional phenomenon, because conditions varied so profoundly from region to region. Actual apostasy was apparently rare, though there is mention of the case of Philo's nephew, Tiberius Julius Alexander , as well as those of Dositheos and Helicon, all of whom pursued careers at the imperial court. A significant trend in recent scholarship considers much of Jewish literature between Alexander the Great and the conquest of Islam as spiritual or religious resistance. The Romans added the third element of the gymnasium?the baths. The "fence" which the rabbis created around the Torah (see Avot 1:1) succeeded, on the whole, in keeping the masses of the Jews from succumbing to Greek culture, as the complaints about Jewish religious and social separateness (cf., e.g., Tacitus, Histories, 5:4) indicate. Here the Jews presented a remarkable exception. Paul, trained in Jewish thinking as a Pharisee, committed to God's sovereignty in the universe wrote to an audience in Corinth steeped in Hellenism. ), Cultures of the Jews (2002), idem, Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans (2002).

2 and 7). Pagan and syncretistic art has been discovered in the synagogues of both Palestine and the Diaspora (especially at Dura-Europos in Mesopotamia), in direct violation of stringent biblical and rabbinic prohibitions. That battle was raging when Jesus sent his followers into a secular pagan world and it rages today. A central virtue is piety which is essentially a personal commitment to the gods and actions that flow from that commitment. Occasionally, resistance consisted in quietism, and the talmudic sage resembled (and was acquainted with) the Greco-Roman philosopher-rhetor who also often had to choose between martyrdom and withdrawal. The Stoic ideal of the sage, as well as Stoic techniques of allegorizing and expounding law, influenced Philo, but it is doubtful to what extent they influenced the rabbis.

), although this permission to study Greek was granted to the house of Rabban Gamaliel only because of their special relationship with the Roman government.

It also made the gymnasium offensive to the God-fearer. The great task of the believer is to live in a world where humanity is deemed supreme and declare in life and in speech how false that view is. The independence of Jewish intellectual life in the Hellenistic age is partly explained by the fact that while Jews took a great interest in Greek ideas, the outside world took relatively little interest in Hebrew ideas.

Mount Shasta: Spirits and Danger on a Sacred California Mountain, Surprising Discovery that Ashkenazi Jews Descend from Europeans, From Christendom to Europe: How a Continent Got Its Identity, Garden of Eden Depicted in Ancient Greek Religious Art,,, resurgence-paganism-008033,

Greek Paganism: Hellenic Polytheism [Online] Available at:, I have a bachelor's degree in earth science but I minored in anthropological archaeology and have attended an archaeological field school. The study of Greek influence on Judaism has developed into a special branch of research on which E. Bickerman, H. Lewy, S. Lieberman, V. Tcherikover, and M. Hengel, among others, have written with distinction.


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