'"Diet of the timber rattlesnake.
Melanistic and Albino species have been found in PA.
Local governments work to protect the timber rattlesnake by creating bans on the commercial sale of this snake, as well as banning people from making bounties on these snakes. A male timber rattlesnake is heavier than a female. If there is no way to easily flee and the threat does not back off, then the timber rattlesnake will strike and bite the threat. Related Species.
However, this snake is itself vulnerable to some diseases.
In the yellow morph, the timber rattlesnake has tan scales with yellow-brown bands and patches. The Smithsonian's National Zoo has proposed a study to test wild rattlesnakes for snake fungal disease. Based on examination of the snout-to-vent length, it was found that juvenile timber rattlesnakes differed slightly in dietary preferences from adult rattlesnakes, being more likely to consume smaller prey such as shrews (averaging 8 g (0.28 oz) and unable to attack subadult eastern cottontail rabbits (averaging 500–1,000 g (1.1–2.2 lb) but Peromyscus was the number one prey item for both young and adult rattlesnakes.
This was rejected by Conant (1975), but followed by Collins and Knight (1980). This makes it so the snake does not accidentally bite itself. Deep set pits between the eyes and nostrils. The timber rattlesnake, canebrake rattlesnake or banded rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus), is a species of venomous pit viper endemic to eastern North America. They are found from southern Minnesota and southern New Hampshire and south from north Florida to … They are ambush predators and capture prey by waiting patiently in the brush, and then quickly striking, biting and injecting venom into passing prey. Antivenom reverses the anticoagulant effects quickly and reliably, allowing the victim’s blood to begin clotting again. Like other rattlesnakes, the timber rattlesnake has solenoglyphous teeth.  That state's legislature praised "...a proud contribution by the eighth grade class at Romney Middle School, from West Virginia's oldest county, in West Virginia's oldest town, to have been instrumental in making the timber rattlesnake the state reptile...". Furthermore, adult rattlesnakes tend to deliver the ‘wettest’ bites, potentially with venom payloads 100x that of a juvenile. According to the journal Annals of Emergency Medicine, antivenom treatment only cures some of the venom’s hemotoxic effects. Hemotoxins also cause necrosis, or cell death.  Cist (1845) described how he lived in western Pennsylvania for many years, and the species was quite common there, but in all that time, he heard of only a single death resulting from its bite.
 Previously, it was recognized by Gloyd (1936) and Klauber (1936). Amphibians and Reptiles of Pennsylvania and the Northeast, Salamanders of the United States and Canada, The Frogs and Toads of North America: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Identification, Behavior, and Calls. Can Venomous Snakes Bite Without Injecting Venom? I believe they breed in April and August, so especially keep an eye out around those months. A timber rattlesnake is a carnivore that eats terrestrial vertebrates. Without the timber rattlesnake, we would be overrun with rodents. Larger timber rattlesnakes may have up to five or six rattles and may shed a button as new buttons grow. Choose your pets wisely, and do your research before bringing an animal home. Type A + B is found in areas where the aforementioned types apparently intergrade in southwestern Arkansas and northern Louisiana. I’ve always been fascinated by snakes and reptiles.
Early symptoms of envenomation after a bite may include the following: Venom is basically the timber rattlesnake’s saliva.
Like other vipers, the timber rattlesnake is venomous with venom potent enough to kill a human.  It was found in Pennsylvania that the smallest size females that could produce viable eggs was 72.2 cm (28.4 in). In addition, the communal denning of timber rattlesnakes also makes them even more vulnerable to human persecution.
At the state level, efforts are underway to protect current populations and expand scientific study in an effort to reverse declining population trends.  The primary foods by genera of timber rattlesnakes were as follows: Peromyscus (33.3%), Microtus (10.9%), Tamias (qv) (10.6%), Sylvilagus (10.4%), Sigmodon (5.3%) and Sciurus (4.2%). Timber rattlesnakes face many dangers in the wild, including snake fungal disease.  Timber rattlesnakes are known to use fallen logs as a waiting site for prey to pass by, giving them an elevated perch from which to effectively strike their prey, which is almost entirely terrestrial rather than arboreal (even arboreal prey such as squirrels tends to be caught when they come to the ground). The species historic range also included southern Ontario and southern Quebec in Canada, but in May 2001, the species was considered extirpated in Canada.
Those things blend in with the terrain very well and are hard to see. However, the timber rattlesnake is not a very aggressive species. Here are some examples of the harmful effects of timber rattlesnake venom which antivenom is not quite enough to fix.
A timber rattlesnake can grow up to 6.25 feet long, with average lengths between 3 and 5 feet. Here's everything you need to know before you visit. Baby rattlers are generally 1 foot (30cm) at birth. In New Jersey, for example, a capture and relocation program is underway to mitigate human-wildlife conflict. , Timber rattlesnakes are present in the eastern United States from southern Minnesota and southern New Hampshire, south to east Texas and north Florida. Snakes of the United States and Canada. When threatened, a rattlesnake coils and shakes its tail, and the rattling sound warns interlopers to stay away. Please contribute your observation of this and
If it were not for my other dog warning me, I would have gotten bit by the same snake. This is the only rattlesnake species in most of the populous northeastern United States and is second only to its cousins to the west, the prairie rattlesnake, as the most northerly distributed venomous snake in North America. disagree, many were present in some of the thick forest areas of central and southeastern Iowa, mostly within the Mississippi, Skunk, Iowa, and Des Moines River valleys, in several places in these areas; bites from timber rattlesnakes have been widespread, especially in a localized area of Geode State Park, in southeastern Henry County, along Credit Island Park, in southern Scott County, and in the forested areas of southern Clinton County. Then the snake is able to shed its skin and with it get rid of the infection. Three to 13 young (ave. = 7.6 ± 3.2, n = 8) are born in September through early October. But the species population has been steadily decreasing over their historic range, mainly due to habitat destruction and other human activities. Its first response is to perform a threat display. Pennsylvania Herp Identification is an educational tool for the public on the reptiles and amphibians found though out Pennsylvania. At the Zoo, timber rattlesnakes primarily eat mice and rats. , During the winter, timber rattlesnakes brumate in dens, in limestone crevices, often together with copperheads and black rat snakes.
, The dorsal scales are keeled and arranged in 21–26 scale rows at midbody (usually 25 rows in the southern part of its geographic range, and 23 rows in the northern part). Though it may strike if necessary, the timber rattlesnake is more docile than other members of its family and is more likely to stay coiled or stretched out, motionless when encountered in the wild.
The hemotoxins in a timber rattlesnake’s venom prevents coagulation. However, timber rattlesnake bites are rare. Taipans The Most Venomous Snakes in the World. After its first shedding period, the juvenile timber rattlesnake will gain the first piece of its iconic rattle at the end of its tail. It would rather safely leave your presence than bite you. It only has its mouth to grab with, lacking any hands or claws. They are protected in many of the Appalachian states but their populations continue to decline.. Their range extends from eastern Kansas, Texas, Iowa and central Wisconsin to Georgia, the Carolinas, West Virginia, western Virginia, Pennsylvania and New England. The Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute is a leader in giant panda conservation, advancing conservation efforts around the world. This may result in the skin around a timber rattlesnake bite appearing blackened. Urban development is the greatest concern for timber rattlesnakes in states where the species has protected status. In some cases, hunters may capture and release but not kill snakes, and they may not capture females or small snakes. These large, heavy pit vipers vary in coloration. Tropical reptiles and small mammals are often traded internationally and may be victims of the illegal pet trade. As a hatchling, a timber rattlesnake will have similar colors to the skin it will have as an adult, though it may be a bit grayer in color. , The timber rattlesnake is listed as endangered in New Jersey, Vermont, Massachusetts (along with the copperhead viper), Virginia, New Hampshire, Indiana, and Ohio, and it is threatened in New York, Connecticut, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas.
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